Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Microvascular Complications.
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Bukhari, Syed Muhammad Hassan
Nadeem Siddiqui, Simra
Background The chronic macro and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus pose serious health challenges. Metabolic syndrome (MetSy) is characterized by central obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, low high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), high triglycerides (TGs), and hypertension. MetSy precedes or accompanies diabetes, and it has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors, and evaluate associated microvascular complications among MetSy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methodology Over the period of March 20, 2022, to March 31, 2023, a prospective cohort study was conducted at the Outdoor Clinic and Medicine Department of Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. Based on the International Diabetes Federation MetSy criteria, a total of 160 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. A special proforma was used to obtain sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables of MetSy in diabetic participants. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Fasting venous blood was collected to analyze biochemical variables such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The microvascular complications of T2DM were established using fundus ophthalmoscopy and neurological and kidney function assessments with the help of laboratory tests. These variables were matched between MetSy and no MetSy groups along with the presence or absence of diabetes microvascular complications. This information was analyzed based on these assessments and patient interviews. Results Of the 160 T2DM patients, the mean age was 52 years with a predominance of females (51.8%) in the 50-59-year age group (56.8%). The average BMI for females was 29.38 ± 0.54 kg/m², and 32 (20%) had obesity. Females exhibited a large WC of 93.52 ± 1.58 cm, and 48 of 83 females had reported diabetes microvascular complications. A significant p-value was observed for hypertension, high TG, low HDL-C, large WC, obesity, BMI, age, and female gender on comparing diabetics with metabolic syndrome (MetSy+) and those without metabolic syndrome (MetSy-). The prevalence of microvascular complications in T2DM patients with MetSy+ was 52.5% compared with 47.5% in MetSy-. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 24.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 20.3%-29.6%), nephropathy was 16.8% (95% CI = 12.8%-20.7%), and neuropathy was 10.8% (95% CI = 7.4%-13.3%). Conclusions The prevalence of MetSy observed among T2DM patients was 65%, with married obese females in the 50-59-year age group being more likely to be affected than males. Hypertension, poor glycemic control, high TG, low HDL-C, and greater anthropometric waist measurements and BMI were additional risk factors that tended to increase the MetSy burden in T2DM. Diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy were the most prevalent microvascular complications of diabetes, and immediate attention is needed to stop their detrimental effects. Longer uncontrolled diabetes, increasing age, and hypertension were independent predictors of microvascular complications. To further reduce the risks of complications that threaten healthy aging and prognosis for these patients, MetSy screening, health education, and better diabetic management are crucial.
Research Subject Categories::MEDICINE::Dermatology and venerology,clinical genetics, internal medicine::Internal medicine::Diabetology
Asghar S, Asghar S, Shahid S, Fatima M, Bukhari SMH, Nadeem Siddiqui S. Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Microvascular Complications. Cureus. 2023 May 16;15(5):e39076. doi: 10.7759/cureus.39076. PMID: 37323312; PMCID: PMC10268561.