Bariatric‐metabolic surgery for NHS patients with type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom National Bariatric Surgery Registry

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Currie, Andrew
Bolckmans, Roel
Askari, Alan
Byrne, James
Ahmed, Ahmed R.
Batterham, Rachel L.
Mahawar, Kamal
Miras, Alexander Dimitri
Pring, Chris M.
Small, Peter K.
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: Aim: Bariatric‐metabolic surgery is approved by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for people with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (including class 1 obesity after 2014). This study analysed baseline characteristics, disease severity and operations undertaken in people with obesity and T2DM undergoing bariatric‐metabolic surgery in the UK National Health Service (NHS) compared to those without T2DM. Methods: Baseline characteristics, trends over time and operations undertaken were analysed for people undergoing primary bariatric‐metabolic surgery in the NHS using the National Bariatric Surgical Registry (NBSR) for 11 years from 2009 to 2019. Clinical practice before and after the publication of the NICE guidance (2014) was examined. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations with T2DM status and the procedure undertaken. Results: 14,948/51,715 (28.9%) participants had T2DM, with 10,626 (71.1%) on oral hypoglycaemics, 4322 (28.9%) on insulin/other injectables, and with T2DM diagnosed 10+ years before surgery in 3876 (25.9%). Participants with T2DM, compared to those without T2DM, were associated with older age (p < 0.001), male sex (p < 0.001), poorer functional status (p < 0.001), dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.58 (CI: 3.39–3.79); p < 0.001), hypertension (OR: 2.32 (2.19–2.45); p < 0.001) and liver disease (OR: 1.73 (1.58–1.90); p < 0.001), but no difference in body mass index was noted. Fewer people receiving bariatric‐metabolic surgery after 2015 had T2DM (p < 0.001), although a very small percentage increase of those with class I obesity and T2DM was noted. Gastric bypass was the commonest operation overall. T2DM status was associated with selection for gastric bypass compared to sleeve gastrectomy (p < 0.001). Conclusion: NHS bariatric‐metabolic surgery is used for people with T2DM much later in the disease process when it is less effective. National guidance on bariatric‐metabolic surgery and data from multiple RCTs have had little impact on clinical practice.