Clinical Service Line 05 - Respiratory, Cardiology, Stroke, Neurology, Medical wards, Cardiac Centre

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    Efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    (2023-05-12) Shivani , Nasir; Ahmed , Syeda Hoorulain; Moeed, Abdul; Mahmood , Aysal; Shuja, Syed Hasan; Hayat, Javeria; Jamil, Bushra; Fatima, Razia
    Abstract Multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis is a grave cause of global public health concern due to its high mortality and limited treatment options. We conducted this systemic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid, which have been added to the WHO-recommended regimen for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until December 1st, 2021, for eligible studies assessing the efficacy and safety of bedaquiline and delamanid for treating drug-resistant tuberculosis. Binary outcomes were pooled using a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model and arcsine transformation and reported on a log scale with a 95% confidence interval (CIs). Twenty-one studies were shortlisted in which bedaquiline, delamanid, and a combination of both were administered in 2477, 937, and 169 patients. Pooled culture conversion at 6 months was 0.801 (p < 0.001), 0.849 (p = 0.059) for bedaquiline and delamanid, respectively, and 0.823 (p = 0.017), concomitantly. In the bedaquiline cohort, the pooled proportion of all-cause mortality at 6 months was reported as 0.074 (p < 0.001), 0.031 (p = 0.372) in the delamanid cohort, and 0.172 in the combined cohort. The incidence of adverse events in the bedaquiline cohort ranged from 11.1% to 95.2%, from 13.2% to 86.2% in the delamanid cohort, and 92.5% in a study in the combined cohort. The incidence of QTC prolongation reported in each cohort is as follows: bedaquiline 0.163 (p < 0.001), delamanid 0.344 (p = 0.272) and combined 0.340 (p < 0.001). Our review establishes the efficacy of delamanid, bedaquiline, and their combined use in treating drug-resistant tuberculosis with reasonable rates of culture conversion, low mortality rates, and safety of co-administration, as seen with their effect on the QTc interval.
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    A case of atrial fibrillation complicated by complete atrioventricular block
    (2023-02-27) Yanagisawa, Yuuki; Ibrahim, Wissam; Kumar, Narendra
    Atrial fibrillation and complete atrioventricular block are two well-established arrhythmias that can share common aetiologies and risk factors. Although the two arrhythmias can co-exist, only a limited number of cases of atrial fibrillation complicated by complete atrioventricular block have been reported. Correct recognition is essential due to the risk of sudden cardiac death. A 78-year-old female with known atrial fibrillation presented with a 1-week history of shortness of breath, chest tightness and dizziness. On assessment, she was bradycardic with a heart rate of 38 bpm, despite the absence of any rate-limiting medication. Electrocardiography revealed an absence of P waves with a regular ventricular rhythm, consistent with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation complicated by complete atrioventricular block. This case highlights the diagnostic electrocardiography features of co-existing atrial fibrillation with complete atrioventricular block that are often misinterpreted, leading to a delay in correct diagnosis and initiation of definitive management. Upon diagnosis, it is essential to exclude the reversible causes of complete atrioventricular block before considering permanent pacing. In particular, this includes rate-limiting medications in patients with pre-existing arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and electrolyte disturbances.