Clinical Service Line 06 - Rheumatology, Diabetes & Endocrinology, Renal, Clinical Haematology, Medical Day Units

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    Metabolic Syndrome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associated Microvascular Complications.
    (2023) Asghar, Shoaib; Shahid, Salman; Fatima, Mishal; Bukhari, Syed Muhammad Hassan; Nadeem Siddiqui, Simra
    Background The chronic macro and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus pose serious health challenges. Metabolic syndrome (MetSy) is characterized by central obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, low high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), high triglycerides (TGs), and hypertension. MetSy precedes or accompanies diabetes, and it has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. This study aimed to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors, and evaluate associated microvascular complications among MetSy patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methodology Over the period of March 20, 2022, to March 31, 2023, a prospective cohort study was conducted at the Outdoor Clinic and Medicine Department of Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan. Based on the International Diabetes Federation MetSy criteria, a total of 160 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. A special proforma was used to obtain sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables of MetSy in diabetic participants. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Fasting venous blood was collected to analyze biochemical variables such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), TG, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The microvascular complications of T2DM were established using fundus ophthalmoscopy and neurological and kidney function assessments with the help of laboratory tests. These variables were matched between MetSy and no MetSy groups along with the presence or absence of diabetes microvascular complications. This information was analyzed based on these assessments and patient interviews. Results Of the 160 T2DM patients, the mean age was 52 years with a predominance of females (51.8%) in the 50-59-year age group (56.8%). The average BMI for females was 29.38 ± 0.54 kg/m², and 32 (20%) had obesity. Females exhibited a large WC of 93.52 ± 1.58 cm, and 48 of 83 females had reported diabetes microvascular complications. A significant p-value was observed for hypertension, high TG, low HDL-C, large WC, obesity, BMI, age, and female gender on comparing diabetics with metabolic syndrome (MetSy+) and those without metabolic syndrome (MetSy-). The prevalence of microvascular complications in T2DM patients with MetSy+ was 52.5% compared with 47.5% in MetSy-. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 24.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 20.3%-29.6%), nephropathy was 16.8% (95% CI = 12.8%-20.7%), and neuropathy was 10.8% (95% CI = 7.4%-13.3%). Conclusions The prevalence of MetSy observed among T2DM patients was 65%, with married obese females in the 50-59-year age group being more likely to be affected than males. Hypertension, poor glycemic control, high TG, low HDL-C, and greater anthropometric waist measurements and BMI were additional risk factors that tended to increase the MetSy burden in T2DM. Diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy were the most prevalent microvascular complications of diabetes, and immediate attention is needed to stop their detrimental effects. Longer uncontrolled diabetes, increasing age, and hypertension were independent predictors of microvascular complications. To further reduce the risks of complications that threaten healthy aging and prognosis for these patients, MetSy screening, health education, and better diabetic management are crucial.
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    The impact of flash glucose monitoring on adults with type 1 Diabetes' eating habits and relationship with food
    (2023-02) Wallace, T; Heath, J; Koebbel, C
    Aim: To gain a better understanding of how the FreeStyle Libre (FSL) flash glucose monitor influences the eating habits and relationship with food of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: Reflexive thematic analysis was conducted on fifteen semi-structured interviews conducted with adults with T1D, exploring their experiences of at least one year of FSL use. Results: Four themes were constructed from the qualitative data: (1) Personal Food Story (what food represented before and after diabetes diagnosis), (2) New Opportunities (the FSL offered novel discoveries and increased self-confidence regarding food choices), (3) Body as a Machine (participants viewed their bodies as a collection of complex processes requiring continuous maintenance), and (4) re-evaluating Diabetes (participants expressed a shift in their expectations of themselves and their diabetes management). Although the FSL offered participants more freedom and flexibility with their eating, this was constrained by feeling forever under scrutiny from the data. Conclusions: Findings suggest the FSL influences users' eating habits, including when, why, what and how much they eat. Participants described both the positive and negative impact of these changes on their emotional wellbeing and relationship with diabetes, arguing for a need to address patients' relationship with food in routine clinic care. Keywords: Disordered eating; Eating behavior; Flash glucose monitoring; Qualitative research; Relationship with food; Type 1 diabetes.
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    Approaches to optimising access to NICE-approved biologic anti-TNFs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis with moderately active disease
    (2023) Nisar, Muhammad K; Taylor, Peter C.; Askari, Ayman; Choy, Ernest; Ehrenstein, Michael R.; Else, Sara
    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with joint pain and stiffness. Biologics represent some of the most effective treatments for RA, but previous guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has limited their use to patients with severely active disease. This has meant patients with moderately active RA have been treated as if they have an acceptable disease state, despite many cases where the inflammation has a major impact on joint damage, mobility, pain and quality of life. However, recent guideline changes (NICE TA715) have approved the use of three biologics - adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab - for the treatment of moderately active RA. Main body: In response to these changes, we have held discussions with medical teams from across the UK to consider the main implications for implementation of these new recommendations, as well as any differences in approach that may exist at a local level. Several key challenges were identified. These included establishing methods of educating both physicians and patients concerning the new availability of the biologic treatments, with suggestions of various organisations that could be approached to circulate informative material. Identifying which patients with moderately active RA stand to benefit was another discussion topic. Relying solely on scoring systems like Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) was acknowledged to have limitations, and alternative complementary approaches such as ultrasound, as well as assessing a patient's co-morbidities, could also be useful tools in determining those who could benefit from biologics. An additional challenge for the process of patient identification has been the increase in the use of telemedicine consultations in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. More use of patient-reported outcomes was raised as one possible solution, and the importance of maintaining up-to-date databases on patient disease scores and treatment history was also stressed. Conclusion: While challenges exist in education and identifying patients who may benefit from the use of biologics, the NICE TA715 recommendations hold great potential in addressing an unmet need for the treatment of moderate RA.